Physical Exercise and Sports for Health Promotion

Unit: One

1.1         Concept of Physical Exercise and Sports

Concept of Physical Exercise

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, preventing aging, developing muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing(Sharpen) athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improving health and also for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and enhance well-being.

In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.

Classification Physical Exercise

Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body.

·        Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance. Examples of aerobic exercise include runningcyclingswimmingskipping roperowinghiking, dancing, playing tenniscontinuous training, and long distance running.

·  Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination. Examples of strength exercises are push-upspull-ups, squats, bench press. Anaerobic exercise also includes weight trainingfunctional trainingeccentric traininginterval trainingsprinting, and high-intensity interval training which increase short-term muscle strength.

·      Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles. Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber. The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.

Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracyagilitypower, and speed.

Types of exercise can also be classified as

Dynamic exercises such as steady running tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow.

Static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly, albeit transiently, during the performance of the exercise.

Benefits of Physical Exercise

Regular physical activity helps develop movement skills. It also, of course, helps bones become stronger and builds a healthy heart and stronger muscles. Physical activity also helps keep a healthy body weight. Moderate intensity exercise can even help to relieve some chronic (long-term) pain conditions by maintaining physical function and decreasing fatigue.

Aside from providing general physical benefits, regular activity can also help ease symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in girls. This is because moderate exercise helps the body produce hormones called endorphins. These are natural painkillers that can ease abdominal and back pain as well as improve mood.

Benefits of activity for brain function

While it may not seem obvious, physical activity plays an important role in developing the brain and supporting essential mental functions.

Research shows that regular moderate intensity exercise can increase the size of the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved with learning and memory. Exercise also helps release growth factors, chemicals in the brain that affect the growth and survival of new brain cells as well as blood vessels in the area.

Exercise leads to improved motor skills (such as hand-eye co-ordination), better thinking and problem-solving, stronger attention skills and improved learning. Not surprisingly, these all combine to benefit school performance. In fact, even the simple act of playing outside with friends, setting non-academic goals and seeing progress can help the brain refocus when it comes time for school work.

Benefits of activity for emotional and mental health

Physical activity can help greatly with maintaining mental wellbeing. The endorphins that the brain releases during exercise help to improve mood, energy levels and even sleep. Together, these positive effects help to improve self-confidence and resilience. It helps in Reduced anxiety, Improved relationships and

improved body image.

Concept of Sports

Sports are group games and individual activities involving physical activity and skills. Sports help in develop physical skills, get exercise , make friends, have fun, learn to play as a member of a team, learn to play fair, and improve self-esteem .Participation in sports is a great way of staying active and offers wonderful rewards for mental health. Being involved in sports has been proven to help children learn valuable skills for dealing with life's ups and downs. They teach youth how to interact with others and work as a team. This skill facilitates working with others in other ways such as on a class project or a school play. Sports also help students become more independent and feel better about them. The result is positive self-esteem and self-confidence, which are extremely important for determining later happiness and success.

Sports also offer an enjoyable, exciting environment in which to learn how to handle both failure and success. Everyone wins and loses some of the time in both sports and other endeavors. Winning feels great and empowering but can also cause a young person to feel pressure and anxiety in the next attempt to win. Losing usually produces feelings of sadness, depression, and disappointment. Learning how to cope with these different feelings fosters good mental health.

1.2 Concept of Physical fitness and Its Components

Physical fitness refers to the ability of body systems to work together efficiently to allow you to be healthy and perform activities of daily living. Being efficient means doing daily activities with the least effort possible.

 Components of Physical Fitness: - The Five components that make up total fitness are:

·        Cardiovascular Endurance

·        Muscular Strength

·        Muscular endurance

·        Flexibility

·        Body Composition

Cardiovascular endurance is the ability of the heart and lungs to work together to provide the needed oxygen and fuel to the body during sustained workloads. Examples would be jogging, cycling and swimming.

Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce. Examples would be the bench press, leg press or bicep curl. The push up test is most often used to test muscular strength.

Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscles to perform continuous without fatiguing. Examples would be cycling, step machines and elliptical machines. The sit up test is most often used to test muscular endurance.

Flexibility is the ability of each joint to move through the available range of motion for a specific joint. Examples would be stretching individual muscles or the ability to perform certain functional movements such as the lunge. The sit and reach test is most often used to test flexibility.

Body composition is the amount of fat mass compared to lean muscle mass, bone and organs. This can be measured using underwater weighing, Skin fold readings, and bioelectrical impedance.

1.2.1 Health Related & Skill-Related Fitness

Health-related components of fitness

#1 - Cardiovascular Endurance

Cardio endurance training:

  • Strengthens heart muscle
  • Increases lungs capacity
  • Regulates blood pressure
  • Reduces stress/enhances mood
  • Lowers unhealthy cholesterol
  • Aids sleep
  • Prevents obesity

 Ways to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance

#1 - Jogging 

Jogging or running is a popular form of physical activity. Jogging is a form of running at a slow in restful pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running.

Health benefits of running and jogging

Regular running or jogging offers many health benefits.

·        help to build strong bones

·        strengthen muscles

·        improve cardiovascular fitness

·        help maintain a healthy weight

For example, you might start with a 15-minute run, and aim to build it up to 35 minutes within a month or two. This is a good method for increasing cardio endurance as one of the components of fitness, and you can physically see it improving each week! 


#2 - Cycling 

Cycling is mainly an aerobic activity, which means that your heart, blood vessels and lungs all get a workout. You will breathe deeper, perspire and experience increased body temperature, which will improve your overall fitness level.

The health benefits of regular cycling include:

·        increased cardiovascular fitness

·        increased muscle strength and flexibility

·        improved joint mobility

·        decreased stress levels

·        improved posture and coordination

·        strengthened bones

·        decreased body fat levels

·        prevention or management of disease

·        reduced anxiety and depression.

Cycling and specific health issues

Obesity and weight control

ü Cycling is a good way to control or reduce weight, as it raises your metabolic rate, builds muscle and burns body fat. If you’re trying to lose weight, cycling must be combined with a healthy eating plan. Cycling is a comfortable form of exercise and you can change the time and intensity – it can be built up slowly and varied to suit you.

Cardiovascular disease and cycling

ü Cardiovascular diseases include stroke, high blood pressure and heart attack. Regular cycling stimulates and improves your heart, lungs and circulation, reducing your risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Cancer and cycling

ü Many researchers have studied the relationship between exercise and cancer, especially colon and breast cancer. Research has shown that if you cycle, the chance of bowel cancer is reduced. Some evidence suggests that regular cycling reduces the risk of breast cancer.

Diabetes and cycling

ü The rate of type 2 diabetes is increasing and is a serious public health concern. Lack of physical activity is thought to be a major reason why people develop this condition. Research found that people who cycled for more than 30 minutes per day had a 40 per cent lower risk of developing diabetes.

Bone injuries and cycling

ü Cycling improves strength, balance and coordination. It may also help to prevent falls and fractures.

Mental illness and cycling

ü Mental health conditions such as depression, stress and anxiety can be reduced by regular cycling. This is due to the effects of the exercise itself and because of the enjoyment that riding a cycle can bring.

#3 - Swimming 

Swimming is fantastic for improving cardio endurance as it requires work from a larger range of muscles than jogging or cycling does, and burns a good number of calories. 

The best way to use it to train for this type of endurance is to swim at intervals of 50, 100, then 200 yards, with short rest periods in between each set. As with the previous exercises, be sure to increase the length of each set whilst taking shorter rest periods as time goes on, and you’ll see an improvement over time

#4 - Active Sports 

Any sport that requires you to get active is good for building cardio endurance, not only physically but mentally. Some people prefer sports, especially if they are extroverted, as they are sometimes bored by solitary exercises. 

Sports that are good for endurance include:

  • Football
  • Rugby 
  • Hockey
  • Basketball
  • Surfing 
  • Kayaking   & More! 

The truth is, you can modify most exercises to suit your needs when looking to improve cardio endurance. Just be sure to keep it gradual and progressive, and you can’t go far wrong.

#2 - Muscular Endurance

The components of fitness definition for muscular endurance focus on similar ideals as cardio endurance. However, there are some differences mainly because of how unalike the cardio muscles and skeletal muscles are. 

Muscular endurance refers to the fatigue resisting ability of skeletal muscles when they are contracted using less than the maximal force for an extended time period. 

In other words, it measures how long a muscle is able to tolerate a high-amount of repetitions with a light weight. 


  • Warm-up beforehand 
  • Start in a standard push-up position with your hands shoulder-width apart 
  • Ensure your arms are at around 90 degrees at the bottom of the push-up
  • Perform as many as you can without fatiguing or breaking form
  • Record your total amount of push-ups and compare them to the average amount for your gender and age!

Benefits of training muscular endurance 

Muscular endurance isn’t just about training your muscles to sustain long periods of training, although this is one of the most focused on benefits of training muscular endurance! 

When done frequently, it actually works to prevent injury, age-related decline in muscle, and a host of other things. This is what makes it one of the best health-related components of fitness to work on within our list. 

Exercise to Improve Muscular Endurance 

The right types of exercise to improve muscular endurance are as below.

#1 - Push-ups 

You’ll notice that this is the exercise mentioned the most when you’re looking at how to test your muscular endurance, so it’s no surprise that it’s also used to train it! Push-ups target many muscles in your body (being a total body exercise), so they should be one of your go-to exercises when looking to train your muscles in this way...  

#2 - Planks 

Planks will improve the endurance of your glutes, back, shoulders, hamstrings, and abs. They’re similar to push-ups in this sense, but definitely serve as a great way to mix things up.

#3 - Squats 

Want to exercise to improve muscular endurance in your legs/lower body? If so, you can’t go wrong with squats. They work your glutes, quads, hamstrings, obliques, abs, and more. Just be sure to engage your abs and glutes for the best results. 

#4 - Sit-ups

Who said that muscular endurance in your score wasn’t as important as the rest?...

As long as you engage your core properly and perform the correct amount of reps, you’ll be able to reap the benefits and truly use this exercise to improve muscular


We’d recommend 3 sets of 10-20 reps if you’re training for endurance. However, if you want to use sit-ups to build muscular strength and tone in the core, stick to around 7-10 reps at a time. Always perform 3 sets and no more than this! 

#5 - Lunges 

Lunges are a great lower body exercise to improve muscular endurance and are arguably as effective as squats. In fact, they actually train the inner thigh muscles that are difficult to reach through other exercises. 

They work your hip flexors, quads, hamstrings, glutes, and core, but only if you engage the core and glutes properly (as we keep saying!). 

If you’re looking to train for exercises such as running, active sports, power lifting, etc. then this exercise will be essential for developing that lower body endurance. 

#3 – Strength

Muscular endurance refers to how long your muscles can work for without fatiguing, while muscular strength is all about how much force your muscles can exert in one blow.

Health Benefits of Muscular Strength Training

It’s no secret that training strength has a great impact on body composition and performance in active sports. 

Strength training:Builds and maintains muscle mass as you age 

  • Boosts mood and energy levels 
  • Aids bone health
  • Burns excess calories (improves metabolic rate)
  • Shreds excess fat stores 
  • Improves other components of fitness (cardiovascular endurance, coordination, and balance) 

#4 – Flexibility

In simple terms it is the ability of your muscles to stretch in order to induce that

 full movement range in your joints.

·        This is where things start to get fun for those who want to try something different with their current routine!

·        You don’t have to start doing backflips in the gym to work on flexibility, mind. What we mean by flexibility in this scenario is more to do with how your joints move through their full ROM (Range of Motion). 

·        The main reason for flexibility being a little different to the previously mentioned components of fitness is that it’s more about your body’s ability to move rather than how it looks and performs, and is often trained by stretching. 

Benefits of Flexibility Training 

Flexibility training has many benefits, including those that aid your health rather than giving you the ability to do party tricks. Check them out below: 

  • Increases athletic performance (due to growing ROM (range of motion)
  • Reduces chance of injury during physical activity 
  • Eases muscle aches, pains, and cramps 
  • Improves balance and posture 
  • Quickens recovering after exercising (improves blood flow) 

Exercises to Improve Flexibility 

Flexibility is one of the most important health-related components of fitness as it ties a lot of the more physically demanding aspects together (such as training for strength and endurance). 

The best exercises to improve your flexibility are as follows.
#1 - Dynamic warm-ups 

Dynamic warm-ups such as lunges, toe touches, bridges, hip flexor stretches, etc. are a great starting point for those looking for exercises to improve their flexibility. 

They target specific muscle groups and joints over time and cause them to loosen up and move more freely. 

#2 - Yoga 

If you’re looking for a super-effective yet low-impact method of improving your flexibility, yoga should be at the top of your list. The difficulty ranger from beginner to highly advanced, so it’s never too early or too late to start!

You can also practice yoga at home as all you need is a mat and some video tutorials, which you can find on YouTube or various fitness sites. 

#3 - Dancing 

The main reason for dancing being on the list of the best exercises for increasing flexibility is that the movements involved lengthen your joints and muscle tissues with regular practice. 

It’s one of the quickest and easiest methods, and for some the most enjoyable (especially if you enjoy working out with others).


#5 - Body Compositions

There are a few different ways to check on your body composition, or as it is otherwise known, your body fat percentage. It may be useful to check out our article on the different types of body fat first if you want to know more about this topic! 

Some are difficult to perform (who has the time for hydrostatic weighing?), while others are expensive. 

However, here’s how to test your body composition in the easiest, most in-expensive way in our eyes.

Benefits of Good Body Composition 
It may be a no-brainer, but the importance of maximizing the state of your body composition through exercise and nutrition is huge. As we touched upon before, every exercise routine in existence should aim for this, and if it doesn’t then it really isn’t worth going for! 

Every component on this list links back to body composition in some way, which displays just how much of a target it should be in every exercise that you complete. 

The main benefits of good body composition showcase it as one of the most important health-related components of fitness, and you can see them below. 

A good body composition:

  • Creates a toned, lean figure
  • Boosts the body’s functional capability 
  • Speeds up metabolic rate (torches calories even when resting) 
  • Prevents heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes 
  • Encourages permanent weight loss 

Methods of Training Body Composition 

Considering the fact that most exercises aim to improve body composition in some way, it’s difficult to pinpoint exercises that specifically target this component of fitness. 

However, to achieve peak fitness you should be aiming to improve each component on our list. If you do this, you will be improving body composition along the way without realizing it! 

In terms of selecting methods of training body composition, it all comes down to a matter of choice and what will help you to create a sustainable exercise routine. Once you’re exercising often and practicing good nutrition, your body composition will inevitably change. 

Here are some suggestions of exercises that you can try to improve body composition:

#1 - HIIT training 

This is especially helpful for those looking to decrease excess fat stores without slaving away on the treadmill for hours. 

You can do bodyweight HIIT at home for around 20 mins 3-4 times per week, and see a big improvement! 

Using weights will be more helpful for building muscle mass though, so be sure to mix up your routine for big changes in body composition. 

#2 - Circuit Training 

If HIIT is a little too intense for you (going all out for 20-40 seconds is harder than it looks), you can always try circuit training. Circuit training is similar to HIIT on the surface, but you usually complete the circuits back-to-back rather than having a rest period. 

There is debate on the topic, but circuit training is also seen to be more effective in building muscle mass than HIIT training, depending on what weights are used in each. Give both a try and see what works best for you! 

#3 - Strength training

You can’t go wrong with strength training when looking for methods of training body composition. It’s arguably the best, as lifting weights is great for torching fat and building muscle and can get you the fastest results!
If you have access to a gym or are looking into 
building your own gym at home, we’d highly recommend trying strength training or power lifting. 

#6 - Power

 It refers to is this component of fitness, which is especially helpful for power athlete sports. Power is one of the most impressive skill-related components of fitness. It is the ability to apply maximum force as quickly as possible. Speed and strength actually come under ‘power’ as a fitness component. 

Benefits of Explosive Power Training 

The benefits of explosive power training, which include:

  • proved cardiovascular function 
  • Enhanced strength (due to large muscle groups being contracted at a rapid pace) 
  • Increased endurance as time goes on (the body uses less effort to produce force)
  • Rapid calorie burning (through the intensity that the muscles are used during the workout) 
  • Boosted overall performance in sports and athletics 

#7 - Speed 

Speed is the distance traveled per unit of time or a measure of how fast something moves through the particular distance over a definite time period. Speed has the dimensions of distance divided by time. The SI unit of speed is the meter per second. In physical education; it refers to the ability to complete a certain physical activity as fast as possible. 

Benefits of Training for Speed

The benefits of training for speed include:

  • Injury prevention (improves your range of motion and flexibility)
  • Improved cardiovascular endurance 
  • Better metabolic rate and fat burning 
  • Increase in bone strength
  • Muscle growth (particularly in the lower body, as it is high-intensity rather than long-duration) 

The best way to learn how to test your speed in fitness, here’s the method:

  • Use a measuring device to mark a distance of 40 yards (36.58 meters)
  • Get someone to time your sprint with a stopwatch 
  • Record your timing 

It’s really that simple! From this, you can work out your maximum running speed over a certain time-frame and distance. Simply multiply your results from the distance of 40 yards and whatever your timing was.

The great thing about speed testing is that you can also use this 40 yard dash to train your speed, by constantly aiming to break your personal best. 

Best Exercises to Improve Speed 

#1 – Deadlifts  

When you think about it, it makes a lot of sense for deadlifts to be used as one of the best exercises to improve speed. 

While they don’t involve the same motion as running, they do build strength and mass in the lower-body and core as well as building the force your body needs to push off against the ground as you run. 

#2 - Box jumps

They’re great for building power, but also tie into the speed element of things. Force and power come from the same neck of the woods, and both are important for generating speed during physical activity. 

Box jumps condition your body to adapt to ‘switching on’ when it needs to during activity, and so you’ll be able to run a lot faster when needed with regular practice. 


#3 - Tyre flips 

While they work your entire body,  tyre flips work well to build on the force in your lower-body. They condition your mental toughness as well as your body, and overtime you’ll develop the ability to push harder than you ever thought you could. 

If you can adapt to the force it takes to shift the tyre at speed then just imagine what your body can do against the ground with no added resistance!

#4 - Sled pushes 

Similarly to how tire flips encourage your body to travel at a higher-speed under pressure, sled pushes condition you for speed beyond belief. 

The added benefit here is that you can load them up to be as heavy as you wish, so they’re great for progressing! Want to run like Usain Bolt? Get yourself down to the gym and give this a go.

#8 - Agility 

Agility is the ability to change the body's position efficiently and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength and endurance. It is how effectively and efficiently you can move, change direction and the position of your body while maintaining control.

However, it also involves being able to change direction effectively and without injury. It’s one of the skill-related fitness components as it comprises of keeping the body under control at high-speed, and really takes some learning. 

Benefits of Agility Training 

  • Prevention of injuries (lower back, ligament damage, etc.) 
  • Recovery time boost (through constructing a stronger musculoskeletal system)
  • Enhanced cognitive function 

How to Train Agility

The following exercises are great for learning how to train agility over time.

#1 - Cone drills

There a few different cone drills that you can try out to train agility, but two of our favorites include the cone taps and cone shuffles. 

Cone taps are great for strengthening the muscles in your ankles and feet, which are of course the base for movement during sports. 

Cone shuffles train your quads and hamstrings whilst simultaneously allowing you to get a grip of where your feet should be in relation to your toes. 

#2 - Ladder drills 

Ladder drills will train you cognitively as well as physically, and over time you will develop a skill for moving rapidly yet under control. Your focus will improve as well as your memory retention. 

#3 - Plyometric box drills

One of the most popular exercise methods on our list for training various components of fitness is that of the plyometric box. For agility, mix box jumps with lateral step-over, step-ups, lateral jumps, etc. for a well-rounded workout!

#9 - Coordination 

Coordination is the ability to move two or more body parts under control, smoothly and efficiently. It refers directly to your capacity to maintain control over your body’s movements, especially those that concern the limbs.

An example of coordination is when a gymnast walks on a tightrope without falling.

#1 - Juggling 

Yes, we’re serious. Juggling is great for improving hand/eye coordination and will help you in your chosen sport if you practice it in short bursts on a daily basis. 

It’s great for learning how to keep a beat in your movements, especially in pressurized situations. 


#2 - Tennis ball dribbling

Dribbling with tennis balls improves your coordination by providing a much more difficult and unpredictable experience. If you nail these, then there’s nothing stopping you from becoming the best dribbler on your team.

#3 Skipping –

You’ll be thrilled to know that there are in fact some exercises to improve your hand-eye coordination that also benefit your cardiovascular health. One of those exercises is skipping.

#10 - Balance 

Although pretty self-explanatory, that doesn’t mean that balance isn’t one of the skill-related fitness components that you shouldn’t work on. It’s actually pretty difficult when put into practice.

Benefits of Improving Balance in the Body

It will even help you in your everyday life, especially with injury prevention. It could even spare you a broken bone or two during your lifetime!

The benefits of improving balance in the body include:

  • Enhanced performance during sports and athletic activities
  • Improved cognitive function 
  • Increased injury prevention, even during everyday life 

Exercises to Train Balance 

From certain exercise classes to using specific pieces of equipment tailor-made for balance, here are the best exercises to train your balance!
#1 - Balance boards 

Yes, they exist! And they come in different shapes and sizes. Some look like flying saucers, and others look like skateboards.

What they all have in common is that with regular use, they can train your body and mind to work together and optimize your balancing skills. You won’t be struggling to simultaneously keep upright and move for long...

#2 - Squats 

A well-known exercise for those that don’t like change, squats are great for improving balance

If you take the time to perfect your bodyweight squat form first (using flat shoes), and then progress to weights afterwards, your body will adjust to maintaining balance under pressure. 

#3 - Tai Chi 

You can either visit a group tai chi class or practice it alone in your living room.

However you choose to do it, tai chi increases ankle flexibility and overall stability through its slow and calculated movements. It teaches you so shift your weight from one body area to another, all whilst keeping perfectly balanced.

#4 - Yoga 

Poses that are especially good for improving balance include the tree, extended triangle, high lunge, chair, and the half-moon. 

When practicing these movements, be sure to maintain awareness through each transition and master each one before upping your speed. Creating a great base to build your yoga skills upon will improve your balance from the get-go. 

#11 - Reaction Time 

Last but not least on our list of the 11 components of fitness, we have reaction time. This component of fitness is sometimes included with coordination, but we feel that it deserves its own spotlight (particularly due to its importance in preventing injury during any given physical activity). Reaction time is the amount of time that it takes you to react to an impulse or need to move in another direction.  

For example, when a swimmer hears a whistle, they kick off and begin their lengths in reaction to it. The swimmer with the best reaction time will kick off first, and therefore have an advantage over the others!

Benefits of Training Reaction Time

-Reaction time can mean the difference between winning or losing in sports.

-It can also mean avoiding a career-changing injury.

How to Improve Reaction Time in Sport

The method of testing your reaction time

#1 - Tennis ball drills

There are a variety of tennis balls drills that you can use to improve reaction time. One is the one that we mentioned in the coordination section that involves dribbling with a tennis ball. 

As well as this, if you have a workout partner or coach you can have them stand around 2 meters in front of you, and drop two tennis balls towards the ground (without warning).

If you practice catching them on a regular basis, you’ll benefit from improved reaction time as well as coordination. Your reflexes will be sharper than ever!
#2 - Sprinting with signals

Remember what we said about the swimmer in our introduction to reaction time?

Take that and turn it into a sprint! Get your partner to signal you to start sprinting, or use an app and test yourself. Before you know it, your body and mind will get increasingly used to reacting to the signal. 

Want to be the first one to the finish line each time, or act fast when you’re in danger of injuring yourself? This is the way to go! 

#3 - Take a run outside

It’s more of a long-term way of learning how to improve your reaction time in sport, but outdoor training will definitely give you a boost in this area.

The first time you go trail running is always a shock. There are far more obstacles than you’ll ever encounter on your cushy indoor treadmill, and you won’t be used to dodging them at first. 

This will help you out in sports too and make the playing field and its obstacles laughable! 

1.3 Importance of Physical exercise and Games in Promoting Health

1. Weight management

The most important benefit of exercising is that it helps with weight management. Exercising increases our caloric expenditure, which helps us lose weight or maintain our ideal weight. Regular exercise also helps to optimize your metabolic rate, which makes weight management.

2. Bone and muscle health

Exercising makes your body physically stronger because it builds bone and muscle strength. Stronger bones contribute to better balance which means greater stability and less injuries, while stronger muscles contribute to general fitness in carrying out daily activities like climbing the stairs or carrying groceries.

3. Relief from physical pains

Exercise provides rehabilitation for chronic pains such as lower back pain. The right kind of exercise can be a good form of physiotherapy for long-term injuries. However, be sure to consult a specialist to recommend the ideal workout before you start exercising.

4. Protection against health conditions

Exercise also keeps body healthier by reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases. By helping with weight management, exercise also keeps obesity-related diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Regular exercise also keeps your blood sugar and insulin levels at healthy levels.

5. Younger, healthier skin

The post-exercise glow is a real thing – exercise benefits your skin and makes it look more youthful by triggering the production of anti-oxidants. These anti-oxidants repair skin cell damage and stimulate blood flow, improving skin health.

6. Boosts mental health

There are several ways in which exercise is good for the brain. Firstly, exercise triggers the release of hormones that facilitate the growth of brain cells. Next, exercise also boosts blood flow to the brain, allowing it to get more oxygen to function better. Furthermore, oxygen also helps to improve memory by increasing the size of the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for memory. This slows down your brain’s ageing and also protects the brain against degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and mental disorders like schizophrenia.

7. Energy level boost

The rush of hormones from a good exercise session is a significant energy booster that helps you fight through fatigue and stay more focused. This energy boost is especially helpful for people suffering from chronic fatigue or health conditions that affect energy levels.

8. Improvements in mood

Along with making you feel more energized, exercise also makes you happier. Hormones like endorphins that are released during exercise bring to mind positive feelings and push away negative ones. This makes exercise a good form of therapy for people suffering from anxiety or depression.

9. More quality sleep

Exercise helps you sleep better at night and fights insomnia by making sure you are sufficiently tired come bedtime. Furthermore, the stress-relieving effect of exercise helps your mind and body relaxed so negative thoughts don’t keep you awake for hours at night.

In short, physical activity is vital when you are motivated for optimal physical and mental health. The simplest way to get in these benefits is to simply set to the right time every week to exercise. Proper, dedicated workouts allow you to maximize the time you spend exercising to get the most benefits.

1.4 Inactivity: The Major Risk Factor for Non-Communicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) contribute to two-thirds of the world's deaths. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths, close to 30 million per year, occur in low- and middle-income countries. Several factors influence the occurrence of NCDs including diet and lifestyle. Among them, physical inactivity which is the major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. About 9% of all deaths globally are attributed to physical inactivity.

Physical inactivity is the term used to refer to inability to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity for health. Many people worldwide failed to have the recommended at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity on most days throughout a person's life.

Physical inactivity is now described as a pandemic that needs urgent action. Research showed that 1 in 4 adults in the world are inactive. Globally, more than 80% of the adolescent population is physically inactive. It is evidenced that physically inactive people are 20-30% times more likely at risk of death compared to active individuals. Currently, there are global efforts to decrease the prevalence of physical inactivity by 10% at the end of 2025.

There is no single method of increasing physical activity level; instead a comprehensive collaborative approach is most effective. Interventions should be easy, simple, cheap, social and sustainable across the life span.

 Being physically active is essential for good health throughout life. Regular and adequate levels of physical activity:

v  reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, depression and the risk of falls;

v  improve bone and functional health; and

v  is a key determinant of energy expenditure, and thus fundamental to energy balance and weight control?

On the other hand, physical inactivity (lack of physical activity) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality (6% of deaths globally). Moreover, physical inactivity is estimated to be the main cause for approximately 21–25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of diabetes and approximately 30% of heart disease burden. 

1.5 Social Benefits of Physical Activity

According to the experts, there are many social benefits of physical activity. Exercise Improves Self-Image

Every people want to look fine, teens with have a very good self-image. Physical activity helps with more than just weight control, clothes size and muscle tone. When exercise becomes a way of life, it can encourage a deteriorating sense of confidence and make a teenager feel strong and health-conscious. In fact, researchers found there is a clear and defined link between physical exercise and happiness.

Exercise Increases Self-Esteem and Confidence

Self-esteem refers to a person's ideas about his / her value and importance to others. Self-esteem and self-confidence can sometimes be indefinable emotions. However, Psychology Today, referencing several studies, reports that physical activity has a strongly positive effect on both self-esteem and confidence.

Exercise Reduces Stress and Anxiety

These days, teens are more stressed than ever with so many demands on their time and so much pressure from different sources. However, almost any exercise can help reduce stress. Any physical activity will release endorphins, the brain's natural feel-good chemical, which results in a great, natural sense of well-being. Scientist Jasper Smits has suggested that the byproducts of exercise, such as increased heart rate and sweat production, are similar to what the body undergoes when subjected to anxiety. Exercise helps regulate these systems as part of a consistent regime; they should stay regulated even during times of heightened anxiety.

Exercise Helps You Make Friends

Many forms of physical activity can be helpful for teens looking to meet new people. If their preferred physical activity is organized sports, the team aspect may bring teenagers many new friends. Youth Sports credits the friendships made through sports as being some of the most unique and meaningful.

Exercise Improves Academic Skills

There is a strong link between physical activity and academic performance at school. Researchers from the UK who analyzed a sample of five thousand children found that a moderate to high level of exercise correlated favorably with better academic performance and exam results.

Teamwork and Cooperation

Sports and games have the power to increase children and teenagers' social skills including the ability to cooperate with others, work as a team, and problem solve. Most team sports teach leadership skills as well as team building skills. This high level of cooperation fosters great communication skills and allows young people to develop confidence in their ability to interact with others.

Exercise Deters (Prevents) Depression

Even though socializing and exercise might be the last things on your mind when you are feeling down, it seems that physical activity can be a powerful deterrent (Preventive) to depression. Not only does exercise improve your mood almost immediately, but studies have shown that it can help to alleviate (Improve) long-term depression too.

Exercise Helps You Sleep

Lack of sleep makes a person irritable and unwilling to socialize. It suggests that teenagers should be sleep eight to ten hours a night. Different research studies suggest moderate exercise reduces the time it takes for a person to fall asleep, as well as increases the time during which a person stays sleeping.

Exercise Is an Alternative to Negative Behavior

Most parents and teenagers would like to know there were alternatives to drugs for those affected. A recent study reveals that exercise can eliminate some of the behavioral issues demonstrated by children. It points out that the endorphins and dopamine released during exercise improve the brain's overall functioning powers.

 1.8 Measurement of Physical Fitness

1.8.1 BMI (Body Mass Index)

The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in meters. Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height.

These ranges of BMI values are valid only as statistical categories (WHO).


BMI (kg/m2)

BMI Prime





Very severely underweight



Severely underweight










Normal (healthy weight)










Obese Class I (Moderately obese)





Obese Class II (Severely obese)





Obese Class III (Very severely obese)



BMI Ranges

For most adults, an ideal BMI is in the 18.5 to 24.9 range.                        

For children and young people aged 2 to 18, the BMI calculation takes into account age and gender as well as height and weight.

If your BMI is:

·        below 18.5 – you're in the underweight range

·        between 18.5 and 24.9 – you're in the healthy weight range

·        between 25 and 29.9 – you're in the overweight range

·        between 30 and 39.9 – you're in the obese range 

BMI Calculators Aren’t Accurate, but Our Body Fat

BMI critics find most troubling is that the measurement doesn’t fully take into account abdominal fat, also known as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which gathers around the internal organs as people gain excess weight, and is more dangerous than regular subcutaneous fat because it behaves differently in the body. As such, abdominal fat is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer in women. It’s also been connected to an increased risk of dementia (Mental Illness, madness), and, overall, a shorter lifespan.

They reached this conclusion after measuring actual body fat and composition in  people using a highly precise total body scanner, then comparing the results with those of various anthropometrics commonly used to predict body fat and obesity, including BMI, waist-to-height ratio , waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.

Ashwell has proposed that governments adopt a simple public health message: “Keep your waist to less than half your height.” That means someone who is 5.5 foot (65 inches; 167.64 centimeters) should maintain a waistline smaller than 33 inches or 84 centimeters. A person who is six feet tall (72 inches; 182 centimeters) should keep his or her waist below a trim 36 inches or 91 centimeters.

1.8.2 Waist Circumference

·       WC is the simplest and most common way to measure abdominal obesity, the extra fit found around the middle that is an important factor in health, even independent of BMI.

·       It’s the circumference of the abdomen, measured at the natural waist (in between the lower rib and the top of the hip bone), the umbilicus (belly bottom), or at the narrowest point of the midsection.

Measurement of Waist Circumference

The waist circumference is an assessment tool that can used to measure the fat located in the upper abdominal region. Waist circumference is an indicator of health risk associated with excess fat around the waist. A waist circumference of 102 centimeters (40 inches) or more in men, or 88 centimeters (35 inches) or more in women, is associated with health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.

To correctly measure waist circumference:

  • Stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones
  • Make sure tape is horizontal around the waist
  • Keep the tape around the waist
  • Measure your waist just after you breathe out.

Waist circumference can be used as a screening tool but is not diagnostic of the body fatness or health of an individual. A trained healthcare provider should perform appropriate health assessments in order to evaluate an individual’s health status and risks.

1.8.3 AAPHER Physical Fitness Test

AAPHER Physical fitness Test: This test was designed to help the teachers of physical education and other recreation leaders in the field to find out the performance levels of their students, compare them with national norms and inspire them towards the higher levels of achievements.

Test Contents: The test consists of the following six items :
(a) Pull ups: In case of girls, the pull-ups are to be started from a flexed arm hang. This test item judges the arm and shoulder girdle strength.
(b) Flexed Leg Sit-ups: This test is meant to judge the efficiency of abdominal and hip flexor muscles.
© Shuttle Run: This test item is meant for judging the speed and change of direction.
(d) Standing Long Jump: For judging the explosive power of leg muscles.
(e) 50 Yard Dash or Sprint: For judging speed.(Multiply by hundred by 100 to change in meters)
(f) 600 Yard Run: For judging endurance.

Administration of Tests
These tests can be conducted in a gymnasium or out-doors. The only apparatus required in these tests is a horizontal bar having a diameter of approximately 1 ~ inches for pull-ups and flexed arm hang for girls. However, arrangement has to be made for the timing and recording of all scorers with the help of timers and recorders.

Item No. 1—Pull up: This item has to be done from a hanging position on the bar by using the overhead grasp (with palms facing outwards). The arms and legs of a subject should be fully extended. From hanging position, the subject should raise his body with his arms until his chin is placed over the bar. Then, he should lower his body to a full hanging position. In doing so, the knees should not be bent and the pull should not be jerky or snap pull. The number of completed pull-ups is the score of the subject. Item No. 1 (Girls)—Flexed-arm Hang: In this test item for girls, the subject is required to hang from the bar with flexed arms and overhead grasp. She should raise her body to a position where the chin is above the bar, the elbows are flexed and the chest is close to the bar. The stopwatch is started as soon as a subject assumes such a hanging position and is stopped when the subject’s chin falls below the level of the bar. The time recorded in seconds for which a subject holds the hang position is her score.

Item No. 2—Sit-ups : For this test meant for boys and girls, the subject should He on his or her back with knees flexed and kept not more than 12 inches from the buttocks. The hands of the subject should be placed at the back of the neck, fingers clasped and elbows touching the mat. From this position, the subject should raise his or her head and elbows forward upwards till the elbows touch the knees. This constitutes one sit-up. The number of correctly performed sit ups in 60 seconds from the start of the first sit-up is the score of a subject.

Item No. 3—Shuttle Run : For this test item, two parallel lines are drawn at a distance of 30 feet from each other and two blocks of wood are placed behind one of the hand. The subject has to stand behind the other line and, on the signal, “Ready”, “Go” should run to pick up one block, run back to the starting line and place the block behind the line. He should again turn back to pick up the second block and bring it also behind the starting line. Two such trials are given.
The better time of the two trials to the nearest 10th of a second is the score of the subject.

Item No. 4 - standing Long jump: In this test, a subject is required to stand behind a take-off line, with feet apart. He takes a jump forward by extending his bent knees and swinging the arms forward. The best jump recorded, out of the three trials given, is the score of the subject. The jump should be recorded in feet and inches.
Item No. 5—50 Yard Run: Two Hens (HNES) are drawn at a distance of 50 Yards from each other. The subject is made to run from the start Hen to the finish Hen and his time taken is recorded in seconds (nearest to the tenth of a second). This indicates his score.
Item No. 6—600 Yard Run: This run can be organized on a track, on a football field or an open area marked for this purpose. In this test item, a subject runs a distance of 600 Yards, the subject takes a standing start from the start line. The subject may walk in between. However, the objective is to cover the distance in the shortest time, When he crosses the finish line, he is informed of his time.
The time taken to run the distance is recorded in minutes and seconds.

1.8.4 Push-ups Test

Push- ups are not only a great way to build upper body strength and endurance, but they are a good way to test your upper body endurance. The push-up test is a basic fitness test used by coaches, trainers, and athletes to assess upper body fitness and to monitor progress during strength and fitness training. This simple test helps you compare your own upper body muscular endurance to others of your age and gender and track your fitness program over time.

Why Measure Upper Body Strength and Endurance?

Strength and endurance in the muscles of the upper body, specifically the chest, shoulders, triceps, and core is a good indication of overall fitness. This simple exercise engages muscles throughout the entire body—from head to toe—in order to maintain a rigid position.

Upper body strength and endurance is essential for athletes such as swimmers, climbers, or golfers who demand strength and power from their arms and shoulder to perform well and avoid injury. But a strong upper body is also important for everyone who wants to perform everyday movements, such as carrying luggage or picking up children, with ease and without risking injury.

These are the key muscles that allow you to perform a push - up:

  • Shoulders (anterior and medial deltoids)2
  • Chest (pectorals)
  • Back of the upper arm (triceps)

How to Perform the Pushup Test

While performing pushups, you lift nearly 75 percent of your total body weight. Using a modified pushup position reduces this amount to about 60 percent of your total body weight.

Standard Pushup Test

This version is used for men:

  • Perform a short warm up before performing any fitness testing.
  • Begin in a pushup position on hands and toes with hands shoulder-width apart and elbows fully extended.
  • While keeping a straight line from the toes to hips, and to the shoulders, lower your upper body so your elbows bend to 90 degrees.
  • Push back up to the start position.
  • That is one rep.
  • Continue with this form and complete as many repetitions as possible without breaking form.
  • Record the total number of full push-ups completed.

Modified Pushup Test

A modified version of the test is used for women, who tend to have less relative upper body strength than men. The test is conducted in the same way as above, but uses a modified, "on the knee" pushup position.

  • Perform a short warm up before performing any fitness testing.
  • Begin in a modified pushup position, on the hands and knees with hands shoulder-width apart and elbows fully extended.
  • Drop the hips, and move the hands forward until you create a straight line from the knees, to the hips, and to the shoulders.
  • While keeping a straight position from the knees to the shoulders, lower your upper body so your elbows bend to 90 degrees.
  • Push back up to the start position.
  • That is one rep.
  • Continue with this form and complete as many repetitions as possible without breaking form.
  • Record the total number of full modified pushups completed.

 Push Up Fitness Test Results


Age: 20-29

Age: 30-39

Age: 40-49

Age: 50-59

Age: 60+


54 or more

44 or more

39 or more

34 or more

29 or more



















Very Poor

20 or fewer

15 or fewer

12 or fewer

8 or fewer

5 or fewer


Age: 20-29

Age: 30-39

Age: 40-49

Age: 50-59

Age: 60+


48 or more

39 or more

34 or more

29 or more

19 or more



















Very Poor

6 or fewer

4 or fewer

3 or fewer

2 or fewer

1 or fewer






Physical Exercise and Sports for Different Age Group

2.1 Physical exercise and sports for growing children


·        Physical activity for children and youth

To help children develop habits that will last a lifetime, an active, healthy lifestyle must start early in life. Physical activity has benefits at every age, and helps children:

  • keep their heart and lungs strong and healthy,
  • become more flexible,
  • develop strong bones,
  • keep a healthy body weight,
  • lower the risk of several diseases and health problems,
  • improve their mood and self-esteem, and
  • do better in school.

Inactive behavior” means time spent doing very little physical activity, such as sitting at a computer, playing video games, or watching television. Children and teens should spend less time on these activities and more time being active.

How can Children be active?

The child learns the most about healthy active living from family. Home is the first school for the children. The whole family in regular physical activity, then child learn many things from them, the child always follows the example, not a suggestion, so parent should be model for their children. It’s easier if families do things together as part of the daily routine. 

  • Choose activities that suit the child’s age and stage of development.
  • Give child lots of time to be active in both structured activities, like organized sports, and unstructured activities, like playing in a playground.
  • Keep activities pleasurable.

As teens strive for freedom, they may want to do some things on their own. Encourage them to go for a walk or cycle ride with friends.

How much time should children spend being active

Daily physical activity can include free play, games, sports, transportation (walking, cycling), recreation, and physical education.

  • Vigorous-intensity activities make children sweat and feel “out of breath,” so that they can only speak a few words between breaths. These can include activities like running and swimming fast or for a long time.
  • Moderate-intensity activities also make children sweat more and breathe a little harder but they can still talk while they move their bodies such as fast walking or a bike ride.
  • Activities that strengthen muscles and bones can include jumping rope and running, or sports like tennis and basketball.

Hare is given a general guideline to manage the time for exercise, sports and games as the developing age period of children

Age Group

Time Per Day

Physical Activities

(0-12 months)

At least 30 minutes of tummy time throughout the day.

Active play starts from birth, especially through floor-based activities including tummy-time, reaching, pushing, pulling and crawling.

(1-2 years)

180 mins of physical activity through the day (planned and organized and unstructured physical activity or free play).

Activities should be fun and encourage your toddler to explore and try new things.


(3-4 years

They should gradually progress toward at least 60 minutes of energetic play (moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity) by 5 years of age.

-Children this age don’t understand rules and often are not coordinated enough to play organized sports.

-Other ideas: walking or running, playing tag, swimming (when at least 4 yrs old), tumbling, dancing, throwing and catching.

-As they grow older, they might like to try skipping and bike riding.

(5-9 years

At least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity every day, including: Vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days a week. Activities that strengthen muscle and bone at least 3 days a week.

Sports should have short instruction times, flexible rules, offer free time in practices, and focus on fun. Other ideas: playing tag, walking to school, soccer, baseball, gymnastics, skating and skiing.

(10-12 years

At least 60 mins of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity every day, including:

Vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days a week.

Activities that strengthen muscle and bone at least 3 days a week.

Children reach puberty at different times. Physical size, strength and maturity vary widely for this age group.

-Usually ready to participate in team sports that focus on skill development, equal participation and fun.

-Can start strength training with lighter weights and proper supervision.

Other ideas: martial arts, hiking, push-ups (with knees on floor), sit-ups.

(13-17 years)

At least 60 mins of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity every day, including:

Vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days a week.

Activities that strengthen muscles and bones at least 3 days a week.

Activities should be fun and include friends. Teens are ready to focus on:

-Personal fitness (a fitness class after school)

-Active transportation (walking, cycling)

-Household chores, 

Competitive and non-competitive sports (a game of pick-up basketball), and

Other ideas: canoeing, hiking, rollerblading, yard work and games that require throwing and catching.


2.2 Physical exercise and sports for Special Needs Children(Children with a disability)

The benefits of physical activity can be even better for children with a disability.  It can give them a good opportunity to socialize as well as improve physical skills such as co-ordination and balance. 

Here are some ideas that should help get disability child active.

·        Be patient, and encourage child with congratulate for any progress

·        When doing activities with other children, take idea how child is doing things slightly differently than others.

·        Try not to be overprotective.

·        Take part in arrange to meet the leader or coach to discuss your child’s particular needs and capabilities.

·        Take advice from related authorities persons on activities for child with disabilities.

It is easy to adapt active games and sports to suit individual needs. By making small changes to equipment, time and rules everyone can get active and enjoy taking part.


·        choose lighter bats and racquets

·        experiment with various types of balls – different size, weight, colour or texture

·        make to do targets

·        try scoops(Scooping" refers to picking up your cards)  for catching activities

Playing area

·        create a ‘level playing field’, an area that is suitable to the child

·        reduce the size of the playing area if necessary


·        slow down the speed of the game or activity

·        increase the time allowed to perform tasks

·        remove time limits altogether

·        include common rest periods


·        alter, reduce or simplify the rules

·        give players prompts for what comes next

The benefits of sports

The benefits of regular physical activity are many:

·        Better overall fitness

·        Improved cognitive health

·        Better control of weight

·        Healthier bone density

·        Better emotional and psychological health

·        Improved social skills

·        Improved motor skills

·        Reduced risk for diseases.

Types of sports for special needs children

Participation in different sport or activity can be changed to give special needs children the cardiovascular, flexibility, and strength-training benefits that allow children to stay healthy and fit. Children in a wheelchair, for instance, can play basketball or tennis. Children without the use of limbs or those with mental disabilities can enjoy the therapeutic benefits of horseback riding.

Sports and activities especially good for special needs children are:

·        Swimming

·        Bicycling

·        Soccer

·        Football

·        Handball

·        Gymnastics

·        Boccia

·        Weightlifting

Above given games should be manage as the condition of the children, Some sports don't need any changes. For instance, the cheerfulness felt in the water while swimming offers a sense of freedom for wheelchair-bound children. Other activities can be changed to make them a better fit.

Parents of special needs children should encourage participation in sports and physical activity in general. Don't approach sports as something they can't do. Rather, guide them toward taking part in sports in which they can succeed and have fun doing so. The coach needs to know how to properly talk and work with your child to make sports participation the positive, safe, and healthy experience it should be. 

2.3 Physical Exercise and Sports for Adolescents

Exercise is an important part of keeping teens healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and teens is important for when they grow older. Lifestyles that are learned in childhood are more likely to stay with the child into adulthood. Some changes in lifestyle can be harder to make as a person ages. The best way to promote healthy lifestyles is for the whole family to become involved.

Some Common Types Physical activities for Adolescents

§  Pleasure walking

§  Climbing stairs

§  Dancing

§  Home exercise

§  Fast walking

§  Running

§  Swimming

§  Cycling

§  Roller skating

§  Jumping rope

§  Playing on the playground

§  Dancing

§  Gymnastics

§  Hiking(Rock climbing)

§  Soccer

§  Tag games(Sports events)

Benefits from regular exercise or physical activity on Adolescents

It is important to provide young people opportunities and encouragement to participate in physical activities that are appropriate for their age, that are enjoyable, and that offer variety.

§  Improves blood circulation throughout the body

§  Keeps weight under control

§  Improves blood cholesterol levels

§  Prevents and manages high blood pressure

§  Prevents bone loss

§  Boosts energy level

§  Releases tension

§  Improves the ability to fall asleep quickly and sleep well

§  Improves self-image

§  Helps manage stress

§  Fights anxiety and depression

§  Increases interest and hopefulness

§  Increases muscle strength

Physical activity has also been associated with psychological benefits in young people by improving their control over symptoms of anxiety and depression. Similarly, participation in physical activity can assist in the social development of young people by providing opportunities for self-expression, building self-confidence, social interaction and integration. It has also been suggested that physically active young people more readily adopt other healthy behaviors’ (e.g. avoidance of tobacco, alcohol and drug use) and demonstrate higher academic performance at school.

Level wise Effects of Exercise on Children and Adolescents

 Improved bone health (ages 3 through 17 years)

• Improved weight status (ages 3 through 17 years)

• Improved cardio respiratory and muscular fitness (ages 6 through 17 years)

• Improved cardio metabolic health (ages 6 through 17 years)

• Improved cognition (ages 6 to 13 years)

• Reduced risk of depression (ages 6 to 13 years)

2.4 Physical Exercise and Sports for Adults

Adults (aged 18 to 64 years) gain some health benefits when participating in

any amount of physical activity.

Remember, adult you should start any physical exercise and games slowly and

increase them gradually over a period of your target time.

Some Common Types Physical activities

Adults should move more and sit less throughout the day. Some physical activity is better than none. Adults who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity gain some health benefits.

Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Activities

  • Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking)
  • Water aerobics
  • Bicycling on level ground or with few hills (slower than 10 miles per hour)
  • Tennis (doubles)
  • Ballroom dancing
  • General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs)
  • Ballroom and line dancing
  • Canoeing
  • Sports where you catch and throw (baseball, softball, volleyball)
  • Using hand cyclers-also called ergometers

Vigorous-Intensity Aerobic Activities:

  • Race walking, jogging, or running
  • Swimming laps
  • Tennis (singles)
  • Aerobic dancing
  • Fast dancing
  • Bicycling 10 miles per hour or faster
  • Jumping rope
  • Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing, with heart rate increases)
  • Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack
  • Martial arts (such as karate)
  • Sports with a lot of running (basketball, hockey, soccer)

Muscle-Strengthening Activities:

  • Resistance training
  • Weight training
  • Resistance bands
  • Calisthenics that use body weight for resistance (push-ups, pull-ups, and sit-ups)
  • Carrying heavy loads
  • Heavy gardening (digging or hoeing)

Benefits from regular exercise or physical activity For Adults

• Lower risk of all-cause mortality

• Lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality

• Lower risk of cardiovascular disease (including heart disease and stroke)

• Lower risk of hypertension

• Lower risk of type 2 diabetes

• Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profle

• Lower risk of cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, 

    kidney, lung, and stomach

• Improved cognition

• Reduced risk of dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease)

• Improved quality of life

• Reduced anxiety

• Reduced risk of depression

• Improved sleep

 • Slowed or reduced weight gain

 • Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake

 • Prevention of weight regain following initial weight loss

 • Improved bone

• Improved physical function

• Lower risk of falls (older adults)

 • Lower risk of fall-related injuries (older adults)  

Key Guidelines for Adults

• Adults should move more and sit less throughout the day. Some physical activity is better than none. Adults who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity gain some health benefits.

 • Adults should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) to 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Preferably, aerobic activity should be spread throughout the week.

 • Adult can gain additional health benefits by engaging in physical activity beyond the equivalent of 300 minutes (5 hours) of moderate-intensity physical activity a week.

• Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities of moderate or greater intensity and that involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.

The key guidelines for adults also apply to older adults.

In addition, the following key guidelines are just for older adults:

• As part of their weekly physical activity, older adults should do multicomponent physical activity that includes balance training as well as aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities.

• Older adults should determine their level of effort for physical activity relative to their level of ftness.

• Older adults with chronic conditions should understand whether and how their conditions affect their ability to do regular physical activity safely.

 • When older adults cannot do 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week because of chronic conditions, they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow. Key Guidelines for Women During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period

 • Women should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Preferably, aerobic activity should be spread throughout the week.

 • Women who habitually engaged in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity or who were physically active before pregnancy can continue these activities during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

 • Women who are pregnant should be under the care of a health care provider who can monitor the progress of the pregnancy. Women who are pregnant can consult their health care provider about whether or how to adjust their physical activity during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Key Guidelines for Adults With Chronic Health Conditions and Adults With Disabilities

• Adults with chronic conditions or disabilities, who are able, should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) to 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Preferably, aerobic activity should be spread throughout the week.

 • Adults with chronic conditions or disabilities, who are able, should also do muscle-strengthening activities of moderate or greater intensity and that involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits.

• When adults with chronic conditions or disabilities are not able to meet the above key guidelines, they should engage in regular physical activity according to their abilities and should avoid inactivity. 10 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

• Adults with chronic conditions or symptoms should be under the care of a health care provider. People with chronic conditions can consult a health care professional or physical activity specialist about the types and amounts of activity appropriate for their abilities and chronic conditions. Key Guidelines for Safe Physical Activity To do physical activity safely and reduce risk of injuries and other adverse events, people should:

 • Understand the risks, yet be confident that physical activity can be safe for almost everyone.

 • Choose types of physical activity that are appropriate for their current ftness level and health goals, because some activities are safer than others.

• Increase physical activity gradually over time to meet key guidelines or health goals. Inactive people should “start low and go slow” by starting with lower intensity activities and gradually increasing how often and how long activities are done. Protect themselves by using appropriate gear and sports equipment, choosing safe environments, following rules and policies, and making sensible choices about when, where, and how to be active.

 • Be under the care of a health care provider if they have chronic conditions or symptoms. People with chronic conditions and symptoms can consult a health care professional or physical activity specialist about the types and amounts of activity appropriate for them.

Key Guidelines for Preschool-Aged Children

• Preschool-aged children (ages 3 through 5 years) should be physically active throughout the day to enhance growth and development.

 • Adult caregivers of preschool-aged children should encourage active play that includes a variety of activity types.

 Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

• It is important to provide young people opportunities and encouragement to participate in physical activities that are appropriate for their age, that are enjoyable, and that offer variety.

 • Children and adolescents ages 6 through 17 years should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity daily:

• Aerobic: Most of the 60 minutes or more per day should be either moderate- or vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity on at least 3 days a week.

 • Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days a week.

 • Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days a week.

Moderate-intensity aerobic activity

* Anything that gets your heart beating faster counts. at l 2 east days a week Adults need a mix of physical activity to stay healthy. Minimum 15 minutes at least uses a week, if that’s more than you can do right now, do what you can. Even 5 minutes of physical activity has real health benefits. Such as walk run, dance, and Play etc. What’s your move?

* If you prefer vigorous-intensity aerobic activity (like running), aim for at least 75 minutes a week.

Adults and Older Adults

• Lower risk of all-cause mortality

• Lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality

• Lower risk of cardiovascular disease (including heart disease and stroke)

• Lower risk of hypertension

Lower risk of type 2 diabetes

• Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profle

Lower risk of cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, lung, and stomach

• Improved cognition*

 • Reduced risk of dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease)

• Improved quality of life

 • Reduced anxiety

• Reduced risk of depression

 • Improved sleep

• Slowed or reduced weight gain

 • Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake

• Prevention of weight regains following initial weight loss

 • Improved bone health

• Improved physical function

 • Lower risk of falls (older adults)

• Lower risk of fall-related injuries (older adults)

2.5 Trends of Physical exercise and Sports in Nepal and abroad

(You should consult B. Ed. first year, B.Ed. second year, B. Ed. third year and B. Ed. fourth year’s physical education book of Nepali writers)

Question Model for Final Exam

Course Title: Physical Exercise and Sports for Health Promotion

Course No.: H.Ed. 547 (Elective)

Level: M.Ed.                                       Semester: Fourth

F.M.: 40                                              P.M.: 20

(Attempt all the questions)

Group A: Objective Type Questions (10 x 1 = 10)

1.     Who united gymnastics with martial arts in Greece for the first time?

a. Herodius

b. Hippocrates

c. HuaTuo

d. Galen

2.     What is called to the ability to carry out tasks without unnecessary fatigue?

a. Endurance

b. Speed

c. Strength

d. Physical fitness

3.     What is called to the physical activity if it is a leisure pursuit?

a. Functional

b. Recreational

c. Health related

d. Performance related

4.     Which of the followings is an example of musculoskeletal injury of physical exercise?

a. Anemia

b. Renal failure

c. Dehydration

d. Fracture

5.     Which of the followings is an example of active protection of health?

a. Purification of water

b. Ban on smoking

c. Using mosquito nets

d. Wearing helmets during bicycling

6.     Which of the followings is used to assess flexibility?

a. BMI

b. Step test

c. Sit and reach test

d. Sprint race

7.     What intensity of physical activity is performed at 3.0 to 5.9 times the intensity of rest?

a. Light

b. Moderate

c. High

d. Vigorous

8.     What is the unit of BMI?

a. Kg/m2

b. m/Kg2

c. cm/m2

d. Kg/cm2

9.     How much calories are burnt by a 30 minute dance class?

a. 80 to 150 calories

b. 130 to 250 calories

c. 200 to 350 calories

d. 300 to 500 calories

10.  Which of the exercises is commonly used to assess upper body fitness by the trainers?

a. Push-up test

b. Sit-up test

c. Sprint race test

d. Cooper test


Group B: Short Answer Type Questions (6 x 5 = 30)

11.  Differentiate between sedentary and physically inactive behaviors.

12.  Explain the social benefits of physical activity and games.

13.  What are the skill related components of physical fitness? Describe in short.

14.  Describe the procedure of measuring physical fitness through waist circumference.

15.  Describe the situation of physical exercise and sports in Nepal at present.

16.  Explain jogging as a means of exercise in promoting health of urban Nepalese.

Answer Key for the Objective Questions:

























Course Title: Physical Exercise and Sports for Health Promotion

Course No.: H.Ed. 547 (Elective)

Level: M.Ed.                                       Semester: Fourth

F.M.: 40                                              P.M.: 20

(Attempt all the questions)

Group A: Objective Type Questions (10 x 1 = 10)

1.     Who initiated physical activity epidemiology in UK for first time?

a. Jerry Morris

b. Erik H. Christensen

c. Martti J. Karvonen

d. August Krogh

2.     What is needed at first to maintain physical fitness?

a. Do meditation

b. Consult physician

c. Get motivated

d. Take balanced diet

3.     Which of the following is the metabolic abnormality as adverse effect of physical activity?

a. Fracture

b. Sprain

c. Hyperthermia

d. Anemia          

4.     Which position is achieved by physical inactivity in leading risk factor for global mortality?

a. 4th

b. 5th

c. 6th

d. 7th

5.     In which fitness test, cooper run is commonly used?

a. Cardiovascular fitness

b. Body composition

c. Flexibility

d. Muscular endurance

6.     What is called to the ability of the body to stop, start and change direction quickly under control?

a. Agility

b. Flexibility

c. Coordination

d. Endurance

7.     What is obesity according to BMI measurement?

a. BMI of 25 or more

b. BMI of 30 or more

c. BMI below 18.5

d. BMI of 25 to 29.9

8.     Which of the following measures of waist circumference is related to a high risk of disease for women?

a. >88 cm

b. >80 cm

c. >70 cm

d. >75 cm

9.     Which of the followings is the major benefit of Yoga?

a. Eliminates toxins

b. Burns calories

c. Reduces weight

d. Improves digestion

10.  Which of the physical exercises burns the most calories in a 30 minute duration?

a. Gardening

b. Cycling

c. Swimming

d. Dancing

Group B: Short Answer Type Questions (6 x 5 = 30)

11.  Explain sedentary behavior as a risk factor for non-communicable disease.

12.  Discuss the concept of active and passive prevention of health in relation to physical exercises and sports.

13.  How can cardio-vascular fitness and flexibility be measured? Describe.

14.  How can BMI be used in measuring physical fitness? Explain.

15.  Illustrate the need and procedure of physical exercise and sports for adolescents in Nepal.

16.  What is dancing? How can it be used as exercise in promoting health? Illustrate.

Answer Key for the Objective Questions:

























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