- Lamarckism is a now discredited theory of evolution proposed by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in the early 19th century. It posits that traits acquired during an organism's lifetime can be passed down to offspring, allowing species to evolve and adapt to their environment over generations. However, this idea was later disproven by Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel's theory of evolution through natural selection and genetics.
- Darwinism is a term used to describe the scientific theory of evolution as proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in his book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. The theory states that species evolve through the process of natural selection, where individuals with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing those traits down to their offspring. Over time, these advantageous traits accumulate, leading to the development of new species. This theory forms the basis of modern evolutionary biology.
- Mutation, the process by which genetic information changes, was first studied by Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries in the late 19th century. De Vries discovered mutations in the evening primrose plant and proposed that they played a role in evolution. His findings helped lay the foundation for the modern understanding of genetics and evolution.
- The oldest known human ancestor is Sahelanthropus tchadensis, also known as Toumai, which lived in Chad, Africa around 6-7 million years ago. The discovery of Toumai was made in 2002 and it is considered to be a possible missing link between chimpanzees and early human ancestors.
- Human evolution refers to the process of biological and cultural changes that led to the development of the modern human species, Homo sapiens. It is estimated that the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees about 7 million years ago and that modern humans evolved from earlier hominids about 200,000 years ago. The key features of human evolution include the development of bipedalism, the enlargement of the brain, the use of tools, and the emergence of language and culture. The process of human evolution is still ongoing and shaped by various biological, environmental, and cultural factors.
- Ramapithecus was discovered by French paleontologist and geologist Camille Arambourg and Indian paleontologist Birbal Sahni in the 1930s.