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Section Officer Syllabus

Paper-II: - Governance Systems 

Section (A) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
1. State and Governance 
1.1 Fundamentals of governance: concept, context, and characteristics 
1.2 Political and administrative structures of governance 
1.3 Right to information and transparency 
1.4 Nation-building and state-building 
1.5 Governance systems in Nepal 
1.6 National security management: concept, scope and existing provisions of national security in Nepal 
1.7 Multi-level governance and Nepal: informal governance, civil society governance, local governance, cooperative governance, corporate governance, and the United Nations Organization 

Section (B) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
2. Constitution and Law 
2.1 Constitutionalism 
2.2 Constitutional development in Nepal 
2.3 Present constitution of Nepal 
2.3.1 Salient features, executive, legislative and judiciary 
2.3.2 Fundamental rights, directive principles and policies of the State 
2.3.3 Function and jurisdiction of constitutional and statutory bodies 
2.4 Human rights 
2.5 Civic sense, duties and responsibilities of people 
2.6 Sources of law and law-making process in Nepal 
2.7 Rule of law, democratic values and norms, inclusion, proportional representation and affirmative action 

Section (C) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
3. Public Service and Public Management 
3.1 Concept, functions, characteristics, and role of public service 
3.2 Public Service delivery 
3.3 Political neutrality, commitment, transparency, and accountability 
3.4 Utilization of public funds, ethics, and morality 3.5 Public management, civil service, and bureaucracy 
3.6 Public policy: formulation process and analysis 
3.7 Public Service Charter 
3.8 E-governance 

Section (D) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
4. Resource Management and Planning 
4.1 Human Resource Management: procurement, development, utilization and maintenance 
4.2 Public financial management: planning and budgeting system in Nepal 
4.3 Government accounting and auditing system in Nepal 
4.4 Financial management and social accountability 
4.5 Development planning and current periodic plan 
4.6 Participatory planning and development. 

Sample Questions: 
Paper-II- Governance System 
Section (A) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
1. Clarifying the concept of governance, mention its fundamental aspects as well as features. 
2. Discuss the contribution of transparency in strengthening the Right to Information and also mention the limitation of transparency. 
3. Mention the scope of National Security Management. Briefly comment on the prevailing provisions of the national security of Nepal. 

Section (B) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
4. Mentioning the sources of law, present the process of law formulation in Nepal. 
5. What do you understand by democratic values and norms? How are such values and norms practiced in Nepal? Mention. 
Section (C) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
6. Mention the concept of public service delivery. State your own view in the context of the saying that there is the vital role of political neutrality, commitment, transparency, and accountability to make public service delivery effective. 
7. Mention the major functions of public management. 
8. Defining public policy, present the process of how public policy is formulated. 

Section (D) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
9. Briefly discuss the major dimensions of human resource management. 
10. Mentioning the major features of participatory planning, present the status of the practice of participatory planning in the development administration of Nepal. 

Paper III: - Contemporary Issues 

Section (A) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
1. Social issues 
1.1 Social disputes and conflict 
1.2 Social justice and equality 
1.3 Social and cultural transformation 
1.4 Distributive justice of resources: disparities and marginalization (regional, caste/ethnicity, gender, rural and urban) 
1.5 Social protection, social security, and social responsibility 
1.6 Cultural diversity and social mobilization 
1.7 Population (settlement, migration, urbanization, aging, refugee, displaced population) 
1.8 Organized crime: cybercrime, trafficking, cartelling/monopoly, terrorism, corruption and money laundering 
1.9 Food sovereignty and security 

Section (B) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
2. Economic issues 
2.1 Economic growth and economic development 
2.2 Major aspects of economic development: agriculture, industry, trade, tourism, foreign employment and human resource 
2.3 Role of the public sector, private sector, and cooperative in economic development 
2.4 Foreign assistance and international co-operation 
2.5 Foreign Investment: portfolio and direct 
2.6 Technology transfer including intellectual property rights 
2.7 Trade, market and labor liberalization 
2.8 Economic diplomacy 2.9 Poverty and unemployment 

Section (C) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
3. Developmental Issues 
3.1 Human development 
3.2 Infrastructure development 
3.3 Sustainable development (land, water, and natural resources: carrying capacity and development policy) 
3.4 Role of state and non-state actors in the development process 
3.5 Peace and conflict-sensitive development 3.6 Decentralization and local self-governance 
3.7 Citizen engagement in development 
3.8 Partnership development and community-based development 
3.9 Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in development 
3.10 Globalization and development 

Section (D) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
4. Environmental Issues 
4.1 Ecosystem 
4.2 Bio-diversity and conservation 
4.3 Climate change and carbon trade 
4.4 Environment degradation 
4.5 Deforestation 
4.6 Crisis/Disaster management 
4.7 Environment and development 
4.8 Energy crisis and energy conservation 
4.9 Pollution and waste management

Sample Questions: 
Paper III- Contemporary Issues 
Section (A) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
1. Mention the positive and negative effects of conflict in social and cultural transformation? 
2. Corruption is the great enemy of social justice and equality". Clearly present your view in this regard. 3. Clearly spell out the concept of "food sovereignty", and also mention the major hindrances of the healthy and convenient supply of food materials in developing countries. 

Section (B) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
4. Discuss the role of the co-operative sector in the economic development of developing nations. 
5. Clearly present the interrelationship between poverty and unemployment and suggest effective measures for minimizing both of them. 

Section (C) - 10 Marks × 3 Questions = 30 Marks 
6. Write down the human development indicators and also justify that human is both the means and ends of social-economic development. 
7. Briefly discuss the fundamental elements of peace and conflict-sensitive development. 
8. Identifying the main characteristics of community-based development, justify the rationale of such kind of development in rural development. 

Section (D) - 10 Marks × 2 Questions = 20 Marks 
9. Identify the major factors responsible for environmental degradation and also mention the effective measures for their control. 
10. Mention the meaning of disaster management. In your opinion, what factors should be taken in consideration to make disaster management effective?

Paper IV: Service related subject 

Section (A) - 30 Marks 
1. Public Management 
1.1 Introduction and scope of public management 
1.2 Various aspects of personnel management: classification of civil service, recruitment, selection, appointment, placement, promotion, compensation, motivation, career development, performance appraisal and separation from the service 
1.3 Organization: concept, nature, type and organizational development 
1.4 Directing, controlling, hierarchy, decision-making, leadership, coordination, delegation and devolution of authority, supervision, monitoring, and evaluation in public management 
1.5 Evolution of the public administration of Nepal, basic structure, features, efforts for reforms and challenges 
1.6 Management audit 
1.7 Professionalism, discipline, and code of conduct 
1.8 Citizens' involvement in the evaluation of public sector performances: Public hearing, social audit, public testing, and third-party evaluation 
1.9 Innovative trends in public management 
1.10 Use of computer, internet, social networking, information-communication technology in public service delivery; opportunities and challenges 

Section (B) - 20 Marks 
2. Revenue Administration 
2.1 Financial procedures 
2.2 Concept and principles of revenue 
2.3 Concepts of public income, public expenditure, and public debt 
2.4 Tax system in Nepal: current structure and implement ability (value-added tax, income tax, excise duty, customs duty, local taxes, and other taxes) 
2.5 Intergovernmental financial transfer and revenue allocation 
2.6 Economic policy, financial policy, and monetary policy 
2.7 Budget cycle: budget formulation, implementation, and evaluation 

Section (C) - 30 Marks 
3. Accounting and Reporting of Government Financial Transactions (20 Marks) 
3.1 Government financial transactions: Introduction, features, transaction analysis, primary record, ledger posting, and provision related reporting system 
3.2 Double entry-accounting system, cash, and accrual-based accounting system 
3.3 General information about Chart of Accounts, Treasury Single Account (TSA) and Revenue Management Information System (RMIS) 
3.4 Public assets, store/inventory, and deposit accounting 
3.5 Nepal Public Sector Accounting Standards and related legal provisions on financial procedures 
3.6 Public procurement management and related legal provisions on public procurement 

4. Auditing System (10 Marks) 
4.1 Introduction, purpose, types, basic principles, and importance of the auditing 
4.2 Government and corporate sector auditing standards 
4.3 Provisions related to irregularities and settlement of irregularities 
4.4 Audit of federal, provincial, and local levels and the state-owned enterprises 
4.5 Legal provisions related to the Auditor General and auditing 
4.6 National and international institutions related to auditing (ICAN, INTOSAI, ASOSAI) 

Section (D) - 20 Marks 
5. Parliamentary Process and Federal System 
5.1 Federal system and federalism in Nepal 
5.2 Legislative interrelation among the federal, provincial, and local levels 
5.3 Management procedures and law-making process 
5.4 Interrelation between the House of Representative and the National Assembly 
5.5 Interrelation among Parliament, Parliamentary Committees, and Constitutional Bodies 
5.6 Role of Parliamentary Officials, Parliamentary Parties, and Opposition in Parliament 
5.7 Role of the Secretariat of Conduction and Management Committee 
5.8 Jurisdictions and policy provisions related to the operation of government services in the federal, provincial, and local levels 
5.9 Code of conduct, discipline, integrity, and ethics of Parliamentarians and elected representatives

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